• A personal note on IGBP and the social sciences

    Humans are an integral component of the Earth system as conceptualised by IGBP. João Morais recalls key milestones in IGBP’s engagement with the social sciences and offers some words of advice for Future Earth.
  • IGBP and Earth observation:
    a co-evolution

    The iconic images of Earth beamed back by the earliest spacecraft helped to galvanise interest in our planet’s environment. The subsequent evolution and development of satellites for Earth observation has been intricately linked with that of IGBP and other global-change research programmes, write Jack Kaye and Cat Downy .

Impacts of winter storms on air-sea gas exchange

Geophysical Research Letters (2006)
Zhang W, Perrie W and Vagle S
Doi: 10.1029/2005GL025257
Vol 33; Issue 14; L14803

The objective of this study is to investigate air-sea gas exchange during winter storms, using field measurements from Ocean Station Papa in the Northeast Pacific (50°N, 145°W). We show that increasing gas transfer rates are coincident with increasing winds and deepening depth of bubble penetration, and that this process depends on sea state. Wave-breaking is shown to be an important factor in the gas transfer velocity during the peaks of the storms, increasing the flux rates by up to 20%. Gas transfer rates and concentrations can exhibit asymmetry, reflecting a sudden increase with the onset of a storm, and gradual recovery stages.

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