• A personal note on IGBP and the social sciences

    Humans are an integral component of the Earth system as conceptualised by IGBP. João Morais recalls key milestones in IGBP’s engagement with the social sciences and offers some words of advice for Future Earth.
  • IGBP and Earth observation:
    a co-evolution

    The iconic images of Earth beamed back by the earliest spacecraft helped to galvanise interest in our planet’s environment. The subsequent evolution and development of satellites for Earth observation has been intricately linked with that of IGBP and other global-change research programmes, write Jack Kaye and Cat Downy .

Impact of climate change on long-term zooplankton biomass in the upwelling region of the Gulf of Guinea

ICES Journal of Marine Science (2008)
Wiafe G, Yaqub H B, Mensah M A and Frid C L
Doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsn042
Vol 65; Issue 3; pp. 318-324.

We investigated long-term changes in coastal zooplankton in the upwelling region in the Gulf of Guinea, 1969–1992, in relation to climatic and biotic factors. We considered the role of hydrographic and climatic factors, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, sea level pressure, windfield, and Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), in the long-term variation of zooplankton in a multiple regression analysis, along with the abundance of Sardinella. Annual variation in zooplankton biomass was cyclical, with the annual peak occurring during the major upwelling season, July–September. Over the 24-year period, there was a downward trend in zooplankton biomass (equivalent to 6.33 ml per 1000 m3 per year). The decomposed trend in SST during the major upwelling revealed gradual warming of surface waters. This trend was believed to be the main influence on the abundance of the large copepod Calanoides carinatus (sensitive to temperatures above 23°C), which appears in the coastal waters only during the major upwelling season. The warming trend associated with global climate change could affect zooplankton community structure, especially during the major upwelling season. Global warming coupled with “top–down” (predation) control by Sardinella might be responsible for the long-term decline in zooplankton biomass in the upwelling region of the Gulf of Guinea.

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