• A personal note on IGBP and the social sciences

    Humans are an integral component of the Earth system as conceptualised by IGBP. João Morais recalls key milestones in IGBP’s engagement with the social sciences and offers some words of advice for Future Earth.
  • IGBP and Earth observation:
    a co-evolution

    The iconic images of Earth beamed back by the earliest spacecraft helped to galvanise interest in our planet’s environment. The subsequent evolution and development of satellites for Earth observation has been intricately linked with that of IGBP and other global-change research programmes, write Jack Kaye and Cat Downy .

Estimating plant migration rates under habitat loss and fragmentation

Biotechnology and Bioengineering (2003)
Higgins S I, Lavorel S and Revilla E (eds)
ISSN: 00301299
Doi: 10.1002/bit.22982
Vol 101; No 2; pp. 354-366

Monoclonal antibody (mAb) fragmentation can be a widespread problem across the biotechnology industry and there is a current need to better understand the underlying principles. Here we report an example of a high purity human IgG1 mAb prepared from CHO cells exhibiting fragmentation that can be attributed to residual proteolytic enzyme activity. The concomitant occurrence of proteolytic and non-proteolytic peptide bond cleavage is shown and the respective fragmentation patterns characterized using high resolution LC-MS. Fragmentation rates are monitored by SE-HPLC and SDS-PAGE over the pH range 4 to 6 and characterized in the presence and absence of pepstatin A, an inhibitor of acidic proteases. After 20 days at 40C, pH 4, a 60% decrease in BIIB-mAb monomer peak occurred attributed to residual proteolytic activity. At pH 5, this value was 13%. These results have implications for formulation design studies and the interpretation of accelerated stability data. A simple method to screen for acidic protease activity using the proteolytic enzyme inhibitor pepstatin A is described. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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