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    Humans are an integral component of the Earth system as conceptualised by IGBP. João Morais recalls key milestones in IGBP’s engagement with the social sciences and offers some words of advice for Future Earth.
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    a co-evolution

    The iconic images of Earth beamed back by the earliest spacecraft helped to galvanise interest in our planet’s environment. The subsequent evolution and development of satellites for Earth observation has been intricately linked with that of IGBP and other global-change research programmes, write Jack Kaye and Cat Downy .

Effects of warm water intrusions on populations of macrozooplankton on Georges Bank, Northwest Atlantic

Continental Shelf Research (2005)
Brown R, Bollens S M, Madin L P and Horgan E F (eds)
Vol 25; Issue 1; pp. 143-156

As part of the Georges Bank/North West Atlantic GLOBEC (Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics) Program, macrozooplankton and micronekton were collected on 30 Broad Scale Survey Cruises between January-June, 1995-1999, using a 10m2 MOCNESS (3mmmesh). The objective of this study is to examine the effects of warm water intrusions on populations of macrozooplankton, namely Salpa spp., Phronima spp., Neomysis americana, and Crangon septemspinosa, on Georges Bank. Salpa spp. and Phronima spp. showed a large degree of horizontal co-occurrence, being found predominantly in Upper Slope/Gulf Stream Water and Georges Bank/Gulf of Maine Water. Abundances of these taxa showed striking interannual variability, and were only abundant on the southern flank and in the Northeast Channel in late spring/early summer of 1995 and 1999, periods during which AVHRR imagery and hydrographic data showed the presence of warm water intrusions. These intrusions seemed to have little effect on the distribution of other macrozooplankton (e.g., N. americana and C. septemspinosa). Warm water intrusions can directly affect Salpa spp. and Phronima spp. populations by advecting them onto Georges Bank, although other, more resident populations, especially those inside the 100m isobath, seem to be little affected by such intrusions.

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